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General Chemistry 2: Acids and Bases

Define acids and bases according to the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis theories.

What are the factors that affect the strength of an acid?

Rank the following in terms of acidity: HClO, IOH, and HBrO. Explain the trend.

Rank the following in terms of acidity: HClO, HClO2_2, HClO3_3, HClO4_4. Explain the trend.

Rank the following in terms of basicity:

HCN Ka_a = 4.8 x 1010^{-10}

HSO4_4^- Ka_a = 1.2 x 102^{-2}

HS^- Ka_a = 7.1 x 1015^{-15}

H2_2CO3_3 Ka_a = 4.3 x 107^{-7}

In the below reactions, identify which reactant is the lewis acid and which is the lewis base.

NH3_3 + BF3_3 \leftrightharpoons NH3_3BF3_3

KOH + CH3_3Br \leftrightharpoons KBr + CH3_3OH

Hydrogen bromide is a gas at room temperature. It is soluble in water, forming hydrobromic acid. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs.

HBr (aq) + H2_2O (l) \longrightarrow

Ammonia is a pungent gas at room temperature. Its main use is in the production of fertilizers and explosives. It is very soluble in water. It forms a basic solution that is used in common products, such as glass cleans. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs in the reaction between aqueous ammonia and water.

NH3_3 (aq) + H2_2O (l) \longrightarrow

Predict the products for the following reaction

KHSO3_3 + NH3_3 \leftrightharpoons ?

KHSO3_3 has Kaa = 6.2 x 108^{-8} Kbb = 1.0 x 104^{-4}

NH3_3 has Kaa = 7.8 x 1013^{-13} Kbb = 1.8 x 105^{-5}

The percent ionization of NH3_3 is found to be 4.2% in a solution, find the concentration of NH3_3.

NH3_3 (aq) + H2_2O \leftrightharpoons NH4+_4^+ + OH^- , Kb_b = 1.8 x 105^{-5}

Lactic acid, HC3_3H5_5O3_3, is a waste product that accumulates in muscle during exertion, leading to pain and a feeling of fatigue. In a 0.100 M aqueous solution, lactic acid is 3.7% dissociated. Calculate the value of Ka_a for this reaction.

Find the pH of 2.0 M HF, ( Ka_a = 7.1 x 104^{-4} )

Find the pH of 3.0 M NH3_3, ( Kb_b = 1.8 x 105^{-5} )

Find the pH of a 0.100 M solution of HOCl, Ka_a = 3.5 x 108^{-8}

Calculate the pH of a 0.2 M solution of NH4_4Br, Ka_a = 5.6 x 1010^{-10}

Compare the concentration of H3_3O+^+ in 1 M and 2 M solutions of HC2_2H3_3O2_2, Ka_a = 1.8 x 105^{-5}. (doubling the concentration results in an increase of hydronium ions by what factor?)

A solution contains 0.5 M KOH and 0.75 M Cs(OH)2_2, calculate the pOH of the solution

Calculate the pH of a mixture of equal parts 2.0 M HF and 1.0 M HOCl. Also find the concentration of OCl^- and F^- ions in the solution. The Ka_a of HF = 7.2 x 104^{-4}, Ka_a of HOCl = 3.5 x 108^{-8}

Calculate the pH of 0.1 M NH4_4Cl. The Kb_b of NH3_3 = 1.8 x 105^{-5}

Calculate the pH of 0.12 M KNO2_2. The Ka_a of HNO2_2 = 4.0 x 104^{-4}