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Coding Interviews: Miscellaneous

Given an array of integers nums containing n + 1 integers where each integer is in the range [1, n] inclusive.

There is only one repeated number in nums, return this repeated number.

You must solve the problem without modifying the array nums and uses only constant extra space.

The Hamming Distance between two integers is the number of positions at which the corresponding bits are different.

Given two integers x and y, return the Hamming distance between them.

Given an array nums of size n, return the majority element.

The majority element is the element that appears more than ⌊n / 2⌋ times. You may assume that the majority element always exists in the array.

You are given an integer array height of length n. There are n vertical lines drawn such that the two endpoints of the ith line are (i, 0) and (i, height[i]).

Find two lines that together with the x-axis form a container, such that the container contains the most water.

Return the maximum amount of water a container can store.

Given a signed 32-bit integer x, return x with its digits reversed. If reversing x causes the value to go outside the signed 32-bit integer range [-231, 231 - 1], then return 0.

A city's skyline is the outer contour of the silhouette formed by all the buildings in that city when viewed from a distance. Given the locations and heights of all the buildings, return the skyline formed by these buildings collectively.

The geometric information of each building is given in the array buildings where buildings[i] = [lefti, righti, heighti]:

lefti is the x coordinate of the left edge of the ith building.

righti is the x coordinate of the right edge of the ith building.

heighti is the height of the ith building.

You may assume all buildings are perfect rectangles grounded on an absolutely flat surface at height 0.

The skyline should be represented as a list of "key points" sorted by their x-coordinate in the form [[x1,y1],[x2,y2],...]. Each key point is the left endpoint of some horizontal segment in the skyline except the last point in the list, which always has a y-coordinate 0 and is used to mark the skyline's termination where the rightmost building ends. Any ground between the leftmost and rightmost buildings should be part of the skyline's contour.

Note: There must be no consecutive horizontal lines of equal height in the output skyline. For instance, [...,[2 3],[4 5],[7 5],[11 5],[12 7],...] is not acceptable; the three lines of height 5 should be merged into one in the final output as such: [...,[2 3],[4 5],[12 7],...]

Given an integer array nums, move all 0's to the end of it while maintaining the relative order of the non-zero elements.

Note that you must do this in-place without making a copy of the array.

Given a roman numeral, convert it to an integer. ie given string of "LVIII" return 58

Given a string s that contains parentheses and letters, remove the minimum number of invalid parentheses to make the input string valid.

Return a list of unique strings that are valid with the minimum number of removals. You may return the answer in any order.

Write an algorithm to determine if a number n is happy.

A happy number is a number defined by the following process:

Starting with any positive integer, replace the number by the sum of the squares of its digits.

Repeat the process until the number equals 1 (where it will stay), or it loops endlessly in a cycle which does not include 1.

Those numbers for which this process ends in 1 are happy.

Return true if n is a happy number, and false if not.

Given a string num that contains only digits and an integer target, return all possibilities to insert the binary operators '+', '-', and/or '*' between the digits of num so that the resultant expression evaluates to the target value.

Note that operands in the returned expressions should not contain leading zeros.

Given an integer x, return true if x is a palindrome, and false otherwise.

Given an unsorted integer array nums. Return the smallest positive integer that is not present in nums.

You must implement an algorithm that runs in O(n) time and uses O(1) auxiliary space.

You are given row x col grid representing a map where grid[i][j] = 1 represents land and grid[i][j] = 0 represents water.

Grid cells are connected horizontally/vertically (not diagonally). The grid is completely surrounded by water, and there is exactly one island (i.e., one or more connected land cells).

The island doesn't have "lakes", meaning the water inside isn't connected to the water around the island. One cell is a square with side length 1. The grid is rectangular, width and height don't exceed 100. Determine the perimeter of the island.

Write a function to find the longest common prefix string amongst an array of strings.

If there is no common prefix, return an empty string "".

Given an unsorted array of integers nums, return the length of the longest consecutive elements sequence.

You must write an algorithm that runs in O(n) time.

You are given an array prices where prices[i] is the price of a given stock on the ith day.

You want to maximize your profit by choosing a single day to buy one stock and choosing a different day in the future to sell that stock.

Return the maximum profit you can achieve from this transaction. If you cannot achieve any profit, return 0.

You are given an n x n 2D matrix representing an image, rotate the image by 90 degrees (clockwise).

You have to rotate the image in-place, which means you have to modify the input 2D matrix directly. DO NOT allocate another 2D matrix and do the rotation.